Linux Red Hat 3.10.0-1127.19.1.el7.x86_64 下安装mysql-5.7.13-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64.tar.gz

十点数据 4月前 ⋅ 611 阅读

环境

操作系统:Linux iZ2ze47rd7nthnbzdggsvrZ 3.10.0-1127.19.1.el7.x86_64 #1 SMP Tue Aug 25 17:23:54 UTC 2020 x86_64 x86_64 x86_64 GNU/Linux

MySQL版本:mysql-5.7.13-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64.tar.gz

1. 从官网下载 mysql-5.7.13-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64.tar.gz

经测试, 本文还适用于如下版本:

mysql-5.7.10-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64.tar.gz 

mysql-5.7.11-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64.tar.gz

mysql-5.7.12-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64.tar.gz

mysql-5.7.13-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64.tar.gz

官网: http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/mysql/

2.检查你所用的Linux下有没有安装过mysql

#rpm -qa|grep -i mysql

mysql-5.7.13-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64 

可见已经安装了库文件,应该先卸载,不然会出现覆盖错误。注意卸:载时使用了--nodeps选项,忽略了依赖关系:

#rpm -e mysql-5.7.13-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64 --nodeps 

当然你的也可能不止这一个文件,也可能有多个,那么你就依次 rpm -e xx --nodeps 卸载,卸载完了再检查一下,若确定删除干净后,在经行下面步骤。

3. 创建mysql的用户组/用户, data目录及其用户目录

在这步之前一定要先确保你所建的用户以及用户组没有存在,要不然在后面的过程中会报错,删除时候要先删除用户在删除用户组名。

# userdel mysql                                           # 删除用户 

# groupdel mysql                                          # 删除用户组名

# mkdir /home/mysql                                       # 在home文件夹下创建文件夹mysql

# mkdir /home/mysql/data                                  # 在mysql文件夹下创建文件夹data   

# groupadd mysql                                          # 创建一个名为mysql的用户组        

# useradd -g mysql -d /home/mysql mysql                   # 在用户组下创建用户 

4、解压安装包并将解压包里的内容拷贝到mysql的安装目录/home/mysql

# tar -xzvf mysql-5.7.13-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64.tar.gz              # 解压文件

# cd mysql-5.7.13-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64                            # 进入

# mv * /home/mysql                                                # 移动到之前我创建的mysql文件夹下。 

5、初始化mysql数据库

# cd /home/mysql                                         # 进入安装目录

# ./bin/mysql_install_db  --user=mysql --basedir=/home/mysql --datadir=/home/mysql/data 

[WARNING] mysql_install_db is deprecated. Please consider switching to mysqld --initialize 2015-11-10 02:09:23 

[WARNING] The bootstrap log isn't empty: 2015-11-10 02:09:23 

[WARNING] 2015-11-10T10:09:18.114182Z 0 

[Warning] --bootstrap is deprecated. Please consider using --initialize instead 2015-11-10T10:09:18.129343Z 0 

[Warning] Changed limits: max_open_files: 1024 (requested 5000) 2015-11-10T10:09:18.129408Z 0 

[Warning] Changed limits: table_open_cache: 431 (requested 2000) 

mysql5.7新特性:由上面可以看出, mysql_install_db 已经不再推荐使用了,建议改成 mysqld --initialize 完成实例初始化。

# ./bin/mysqld --user=mysql --basedir=/home/mysql --datadir=/home/mysql/data --initialize

# ./mysqld --user=mysql --basedir=/home/mysql --datadir=/home/mysql/data --initialize

[Warning] TIMESTAMP with implicit DEFAULT value is deprecated. Please use --explicit_defaults_for_timestamp server option (see documentation for more details). 

[ERROR] --initialize specified but the data directory has files in it. Aborting. 2016-04-08T01:46:53.155879Z 0 

[ERROR] Aborting 

出现上面的错误是因为我们没有清空mysql的data目录, 执行清空命令如下:

# cd /home/mysql/data                        # 进入安装目录下的data目录

# rm -fr *                                   # 清空数据

# cd /home/mysql       

# ./bin/mysqld --user=mysql --basedir=/home/mysql --datadir=/home/mysql/data --initialize 

[Warning] TIMESTAMP with implicit DEFAULT value is deprecated. Please use --explicit_defaults_for_timestamp server option (see documentation for more details). 2016-04-08T01:47:59.945537Z 0 

[Warning] InnoDB: New log files created, LSN=45790 2016-04-08T01:48:00.333528Z 0 [Warning] InnoDB: Creating foreign key constraint system tables. 2016-04-08T01:48:00.434908Z 0 

[Warning] No existing UUID has been found, so we assume that this is the first time that this server has been started. Generating a new UUID: ece26421-fd2b-11e5-a1e3-00163e001e5c. 2016-04-08T01:48:00.440125Z 0 

[Warning] Gtid table is not ready to be used. Table 'mysql.gtid_executed' cannot be opened. 2016-04-08T01:48:00.440904Z 1 

[Note] A temporary password is generated for root@localhost: **mjT,#x_5sW 

牢记上面的随机密码, 如上**mjT,#x_5sW, 下面我们修改密码时需要用到。

6、检测下是否能启动mysql服务

# cd /home/mysql

# ./support-files/mysql.server start

Starting MySQL.. OK! 

这是正常的情况下。

刚刚我用的是/home/mysql为mysql的安装目录basedir, 则在启动服务时会出现如下错误:

# ./support-files/mysql.server start 

./support-files/mysql.server: line 276: cd: /usr/local/mysql: No such file or directory 

Starting MySQL ERROR! Couldn't find MySQL server (/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld_safe) 

由上面可知mysql的tar.gz安装包的默认安装目录为/usr/local/mysql, 这时候我们需要修改/support-files/mysql.server文件的basedir和datadir目录路径为我们环境所在的mysql的basedir和datadir路径, 如下:

# vim support-files/mysql.server 
-------------------------- 
... 
basedir=/home/mysql 
datadir=/home/mysql/data 
... 
--------------------------
# ./support-files/mysql.server start
start Starting MySQL.. OK! 

注意:上面 basedir 以及datadir部分是手动改的,那么在命令中如何手动改,步骤:

1、 按 键盘 i 键(insert),然后就可以在你想要的位置编写了。
2、编辑完毕退出,esc键。
3、Shift键 加 :(冒号键)退出编辑。
4、wq!   保存编辑

7、创建软链接

# ln -s /home/mysql/bin/mysql /usr/bin/mysql 

8、创建配置文件

下面的前3步操作过程中,可能会出错,如果有错就跳过,因为不同电脑的环境不一样,

1、将默认生成的my.cnf备份

# mv /etc/my.cnf /etc/my.cnf.bak 

如果这一步报错,没有关系,正常情况下是由于/ect文件夹下没有my.cnf锁引起的,创建一下就可以了,或者你不会创建 , 直接使用 vim /ect/my.cnf 命令编辑 , 然后直接退出编辑就可以,在执行这个命令就不会出错了,退出编辑命令 esc键 -> (shift键+ :(冒号键) -> wq! ),然后在执行上面的命令就不会报错了。

2、进入mysql的安装目录支持文件目录

# cd /home/mysql/support-files 

3、拷贝配置文件模板为新的mysql配置文件,

# cp my-default.cnf /etc/my.cnf 

4、设置编码, 可按需修改新的配置文件选项, 不修改配置选项, mysql则按默认配置参数运行. 如下是我修改配置文件/etc/my.cnf, 设置编码为utf8以防乱码

# vim /etc/my.cnf

[mysqld]

basedir = /home/mysql

datadir = /home/mysql/data

character_set_server=utf8

init_connect='SET NAMES utf8'

[client]

default-character-set=utf8 

有的时候使用这个命令后,前3步有问题的这里可能my.cnf文件是空的,这个不要紧,既然没有生成,那么你就自己编辑喽!具体编辑怎么实现就参照步骤6.

9、配置mysql服务开机自动启动

# cp /home/mysql/support-files/mysql.server /etc/init.d/mysqld      # 拷贝启动文件到/etc/init.d/下并重命令为mysqld

# chmod 755 /etc/init.d/mysqld                                      # 增加执行权限

# chkconfig --list mysqld                                           # 检查自启动项列表中没有mysqld这个,

# chkconfig --add mysqld                                            # 如果没有就添加mysqld:

# chkconfig mysqld on                                               # 用这个命令设置开机启动: 

如果在执行第一步就报错,则说明刚刚在第8步中配置出问题了,那你就重新设置一下

mysql1.png

做完这步后再重新执行下上面的操作。如果后面的操作中出现以下的问题

ysql2.png

这样就是电脑环境的问题了,你就直接把 mysql3.png

10、mysql服务的启动/重启/停止

# service mysqld start                                               # 启动服务

# service mysqld restart                                             # 重启服务

# service mysqld stop                                                # 停止服务 

11、初始化mysql用户root的密码

# cd /home/mysql

# ./bin/mysqladmin -u root -p '**mjT,#x_5sW' password '123456' mysqladmin:                                         # 刚刚之前的初始密码

[Warning] Using a password on the command line interface can be insecure.

Warning: Since password will be sent to server in plain text, use ssl connection to ensure password safety.

mysql> use mysql

Database changed

mysql> update user set authentication_string = PASSWORD('123456') where user = 'root';

Query OK, 0 rows affected, 1 warning (0.00 sec)

Rows matched: 2 Changed: 0 Warnings: 1

mysql> \s

--------------

mysql Ver 14.14 Distrib 5.7.13, for linux-glibc2.5 (x86_64) using EditLine wrapper

Connection id:  3

Current database:   mysql

Current user:   root@localhost

SSL:    Not in use

Current pager:  stdout

Using outfile:  ''

Using delimiter:    ;

Server version: 5.7.13 MySQL Community Server (GPL)

Protocol version:   10

Connection: Localhost via UNIX socket

Server characterset:    utf8

Db characterset:    utf8

Client characterset:    utf8

Conn. characterset: utf8

UNIX socket:    /tmp/mysql.sock

Uptime: 1 hour 29 min 17 sec

Threads: 1 Questions: 50 Slow queries: 0 Opens: 136 Flush tables: 1 Open tables: 129 Queries per second avg: 0.009

修改完数据库密码后,一定记得重启MySQL服务,否则登录时提示密码错误

如果这一步完成不了的话,也就是修改不了密码的话,你也可以直接下面的方式先登录

mysql4.png

root@s0:/home/mysql# ./bin/mysqladmin -u root -p '946//EE=v!Ne' password '123456' mysqladmin:

Enter password: 

mysqladmin: connect to server at 'localhost' failed                           --不让你修改

error: 'Access denied for user 'root'@'localhost' (using password: YES)' 

root@s0:/home/mysql# find / -name mysql.sock

/tmp/mysql.sock

root@s0:/home/mysql# /home/mysql/bin/mysql -u root -p -S /tmp/mysql.sock

Enter password: 

ERROR 1045 (28000): Access denied for user 'root'@'localhost' (using password: NO)           --输入之前的密码

root@s0:/home/mysql# /home/mysql/bin/mysql -u root -p -S /tmp/mysql.sock

Enter password: 

Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.

Your MySQL connection id is 3

Server version: 5.7.13

Copyright (c) 2000, 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its

affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective

owners.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

mysql> 

mysql> use mysql;

ERROR 1820 (HY000): You must reset your password using ALTER USER statement before executing this statement.    --没有权限

mysql> alter user 'root'@'localhost' identified by 'root';

Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.04 sec)

mysql> use mysql

Reading table information for completion of table and column names

You can turn off this feature to get a quicker startup with -A

Database changed

mysql> update user set authentication_string = PASSWORD('123456') where user = 'root';

Query OK, 1 row affected, 1 warning (0.01 sec)

Rows matched: 1  Changed: 1  Warnings: 1
mysql> \s 

但是如果不修改密码,不进每次登陆麻烦而且在执行一些操作会报一下错误

You must reset your password using ALTER USER statement before executing this statement    # 意思就是你必须重置你的密码在执行这个execute操作前 

这里教大家用另外一种方式修改密码,这个是在已经登陆进去的情况下依次执行。

mysql> SET PASSWORD = PASSWORD('123456');             # PASSWORD()里面的123456 是我设置的新密码,你也可以设置成你的密码

Query OK, 0 rows affected, 1 warning (0.00 sec)

Rows matched: 2 Changed: 0 Warnings: 1

mysql> ALTER USER 'root'@'localhost' PASSWORD EXPIRE NEVER;

Query OK, 0 rows affected, 1 warning (0.00 sec)

Rows matched: 2 Changed: 0 Warnings: 1

mysql> flush privileges;

Query OK, 0 rows affected, 1 warning (0.00 sec)

Rows matched: 2 Changed: 0 Warnings: 1 

12. mysql远程授权

[root@testfornss ~]# mysql -u root -p

Enter password: 

Welcome to the MySQL monitor. Commands end with ; or \g.

Your MySQL connection id is 4

Server version: 5.7.13 MySQL Community Server (GPL)

Copyright (c) 2000, 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its

affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective

owners.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

mysql> grant all privileges on *.* to 'root'@'%' identified by '123456';

Query OK, 0 rows affected, 1 warning (0.00 sec)

mysql> 

 或者:

grant all on *.* to 'root'@'%' identified by '123456';  

如果不设置远程连接,用mysql数据库连接工具可是连接不上的!!!

14.用数据库连接工具来测试你刚刚的安装是不是成功了

首先要知道,远程连接的Linux系统的ip,确保本机已经能够ping通的情况下再连接。

注意:

如果防火墙没有关闭的话有时候也是连接不上的,关闭防火墙一定是要在mysql服务启动后在关闭,如果在mysql服务启动前关闭,系统会在mysql服务启动后自动开启防火墙,这样还是连接不上。

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